Data is a formalized representation of facts, concepts or instructions that can be communicated, interpreted or processed by humans or by automatic means, Hicks [1993: 668]. Data are information or statistics from which it is possible to draw hypotheses. There must be a process of collecting and sorting data before one can show and analyze data. In the same way that trees are the non-processed substances from which the paper is manufactured, data can also be considered as the raw resources from that information is collected. Data as a basic concept highlights the fact that certain current information or content is displayed or formatted in some type suitable for better use or processing. Data is obtained and analyzed; data only becomes information that is in some way suited to decision-making. Collecting data can be done through primary data or secondary data. The most important part of statistical analysis is the role of data collection.
Several methods are also used to collect data, that are mainly divided into two types, such as primary and secondary data. (Douglas, 2015). The researcher gathers data on its own as primary data while using other people’s data. that has already been obtained or created. Primary and secondary data are not the same and are very different.
3.5.1 Primary Data
Primary data is taken by the researcher for the first time, while secondary data are data already taken or generated by others. (Douglas, 2015). Primary data is accurate and original, while secondary data is only the primary data analysis and understanding. Examples of primary data include surveys, findings, tests, questionnaires, interviews with people, etc.
3.5.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data is the data already obtained previously by research agencies and institutions. Primary data is real-time data, while secondary data is past-related. For reasons other than the problem at hand, secondary data is taken. The secondary data collection system, on the other hand, is quick and simple. Public documents, blogs, books, journals, newspapers, magazines and internal records, etc. are secondary sources of data collection.